China’s urbanization over the past thrree decades is a massive phenomenon of scale and speed. In the 1980’s, in a very much “different” China, there were less than 200 million of “urban” population (a fifth of the total population). However, by 2011, 700 million (half of the total population) leave in urban areas, while tThe figure is expected to further grow in the future as 250 million migrant workers are expected to move to the cities by 2030.
Urbanization, in China, is controlled by the hukou system, a household registration system introduced in 1958. The hukou system legally ties migrant workers to their rural home and was designed to keep rural residents working on the farm.
The issue of urbanization is key in the bilateral Sino-EU dicussions and is also a key area of interest for DRAGON-STAR.
Download here an infographic for China’s Urbanization, produced by DRAGON-STAR : HUKU INFOGRAPHIC
• Urbanization is heavily controlled by the hukou system, a household registration system introduced in 1958. The hukou system legally ties migrant workers to their rural home and was designed to keep rural residents working on the farm.
• Land in China is divided into types: urban and rural
–Urban land is owned by the state but leased for seventy years to developers, enterprizes and private owners
–Rural land belongs to the collective, which leases parts of the land to farmers for extendable 30-year periods.
Urbanization ratio in China is currently at 50% while the ration in the developed countries (UK, USA, Canada, Germany, Japan) is between 70 to 90%.
To ensure grain security, China set a “red line” to guarantee its arable land never shrinks to less than 1.8 billion mu (120 million hectares). In other words, this red line defines as the minimum area for the Country being able to feed itself.
According to statistics from China’s Ministry of Land and Resources (MLR), the country is already edging dangerously close to its “red line”, with just 1.826 billion mu available as of the end of last year. China lost 123 million mu of arable land from 1997 to 2009.
to be continued….
EU-China Urbanization cooperation
- The EU-China Partnership on Sustainable Urbanization
- EU-China Urbanization Partnership
- EU-China Joint Workshop on Urban Innovation successfully completed (Foshan, 08/07/2013)
- China’s Urbanization Risk
- Preparing for China’s urban billion, a report by the McKinsey Global Institute, Feb 2009
- Cities of Opportunity, 2012, a report by PwC
Hukou: The household registration system in China, that controls the number of workers allowed to migrate.People who work outside their authorized domain or geographical area would not qualify for employer-provided housing, education or health care. Read more